# The rampart-lmdb module¶

## Preface¶

### Acknowledgment¶

The rampart-lmdb module uses Symas’ LMDB library. The authors of Rampart extend our thanks to Symas for this library.

The LMDB library is licensed under the OpenLdap Public License, which is a BSD-like license. The rampart-lmdb module is released under the MIT license.

### What does it do?¶

The rampart-lmdb module provides a key/value store database using the LMDB library. For background information, see Symas’ description here.

### How does it work?¶

The rampart-lmdb module exports a get and put function which allow a program to store data indexed by its key. Data may be a String or Buffer, or optionally data can be converted to and from JSON automatically.

Loading the module is a simple matter of using the require() function:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");


## Terminology¶

Within LMDB, a “database environment” is a single file which lives in its own directory, and has an accompanying lock file. Within that file, data may be partitioned into “databases”. Thus an LMDB “database environment” is organizationally similar to a SQL database and an LMDB “database” is similar to a SQL table.

## Main Function (init)¶

After loading, a new database environment can be opened (and optionally created) as follows:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);


Where:

• path is a String, the location of the database environment.

• create is a Boolean, whether to create a new database environment, if it doesn’t exist.

• options is a Object, a list of options for opening a new database environment. Options include:

• mapSize - a Number, an integer to set the size of the memory map in megabytes to use for this environment. The size of the memory map is also the maximum size of the database environment. The value should be chosen as large as possible, to accommodate future growth of the database environment. It may be increased after the database environment is created. The default is 16 (16Mb).

• conversion - String, whether and what type of conversions should be performed before storing values. This applies to LMDB Easy Functions only. The value is of these case-insensitive Strings:

• Buffer - the default if not specified. Input values (put) can be a String or a Buffer and are stored as is. Output values (get) will be a Buffer.

• String - Input values (put) can be a String or a Buffer and are stored as is. Output values (get) will be a String. If the output value includes NULL characters, the String will be truncated.

• JSON - Input values (put) can be any type except a Buffer or an Object that contains a Buffer. Output values (get) will be the same as the input value.

• CBOR - Input values (put) can be any type including a Buffer or Objects that contains a Buffers. Output values (get) will be the same as the input value. See CBOR encoding description for more information on CBOR encoding.

• maxDbs - a positive Number, the maximum number of named databases that can be used in the opened database environment. Default is 256. There is a cost to opening an environment with a large maxDbs value.

• noSync - a Boolean, whether to turn off the flushing of LMDB buffers to disk when committing a transaction. This optimization means a system crash can corrupt the database or lose the last transactions if buffers are not yet flushed to disk. The risk is governed by how often the system flushes dirty buffers to disk and how often sync is manually called. However, if the filesystem preserves write order and the writeMap setting below is not set or set false, transactions exhibit ACI (atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties and only lose D (durability). This means database integrity is maintained, but a system crash may undo the final transactions.

• noMetaSync - a Boolean, whether flushing of the system buffers to disk happens only once per transaction, omitting the metadata flush. If true, LMDB will defer that until the system flushes files to disk, or when sync below is called. This optimization maintains database integrity, but a system crash may undo the last committed transaction.

• mapAsync - a Boolean, whether, when using writeMap, LMDB should use asynchronous flushes to disk. As with noSync, a system crash can then corrupt the database or lose the last transactions. Calling sync below ensures on-disk database integrity.

• noReadAhead - a Boolean, whether LMDB should Turn off readahead. Most operating systems perform readahead on read requests by default. This option turns it off if the OS supports it. Turning it off may help random read performance when the DB is larger than RAM and system RAM is full.

• writeMap - a Boolean, whether to write data directly to LMDB’s memory map of the database environment. This is faster and uses fewer mallocs, but loses protection from application bugs like wild pointer writes and other bad updates into the database.

Return Value:

A set of functions to operate on the database environment. See below.

## LMDB Easy Functions¶

After a database environment is opened, the following functions and flags are available in the return object:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path, create, options);
/* return value:
{
openDb:      {_func: true},
getCount:    {_func: true},
get:         {_func: true},
put:         {_func: true},
del:         {_func: true},
drop:        {_func: true},
sync:        {_func: true},
transaction: {_func: true}
}
*/


### openDb¶

Open a database for use with the below functions.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var ret = lmdb.openDb([dbase[, create]]);


Where:

dbase is a String, the name of the database to be accessed. If undefined or null, the lmdb default database for the database envirnoment will be opened.

create is a Boolean, if true openDb will be a write transaction which creates the database, if it does not exist.

Return Value:

A dbi object representing the opened database.

Note:

If opening a database for use in one of the LMDB Transaction Functions below, this function must be called before any transaction is opened (before calling new lmdb.transaction()).

### get¶

Retrieve values from a database.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var ret = lmdb.get(dbase, key[, nKeys]);

/* or */

var ret = lmdb.get(dbase, key[, endkey][, max]);


Where:

• dbase is dbi object returned from openDb or a String, the name of the database to be accessed. If the database does not exist, an error will be thrown.

• key is a String, the name of the key whose data will be retrieved.

• nKeys is an optional Number, the total number of keys to retrieve. If a positive number, the key will be returned along with the next nKeys - 1 keys that follow in lexical order. If a negative number, the key will be returned along with the previous nKeys - 1 keys that precede in lexical order. NOTE that if key is not found, no other keys will be returned. See the glob version in endkey below for that functionality.

• endkey is an optional String, the last key to retrieve, retrieving all keys between key and endKey (but no more than max, if given). If endKey precedes key in lexical order, the keys and values will be returned in reverse order (but no more than max, if given).

Globbing: If endKey is set to the special string "*", all keys beginning with key will be returned.

• max is an optional positive Number greater than 0 which may be specified to limit the number of key/value pairs returned when using endkey.

Return Value:

If neither nKeys nor endkey is specified, a single value is returned. The type of the return value is determined by the conversion setting above.

If either nKeys or endkey is specified, an Object of key/value pairs is returned with each key set to the name of the retrieved key and each value set as described above.

### put¶

Put (store) values in a given Object or in a given key:value pair into a given database, indexed by the key(s).

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

lmdb.put(dbase, kvpairs);

/* or */

lmdb.put(dbase, key, value);


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb or a String, the name of the database to be accessed. If the database does not exist, it will be created.

• kvpairs is an Object with each Object key corresponding to a database key to be used and each Object value corresponding to the database value to be stored. Note: Values must be a String or Buffer unless conversion above is set to “JSON” or “CBOR”.

• key is the key of a single key:value pair.

• value is the value of a single key:value pair.

Return Value:

undefined.

### del¶

Delete values in a database.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var ret = lmdb.del(dbase, key[, nKeys][, retValues]);

/* or */

var ret = lmdb.del(dbase, key[, endkey][, max][, retValues]);


Where options are the same as in get above, with the addition of retValues (which, if provided, is a Boolean). If retValues is set true, the deleted values are returned in the same manner as get. Otherwise undefined is returned.

### drop¶

Drop a database from the database environment removing all the items in the database along with the database itself.

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

lmdb.drop(dbase);


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb or a String, the name of the database to be dropped.

To drop the default database, pass an empty string or null: lmdb.drop(null);.

Return Value:

undefined.

Note:

If a dbi object is specified, it must not be used as a parameter to any other function after executing lmdb.drop(). It, however, may be recreated calling openDb(dbname, true) again.

Note:

Dropping the default database will delete the its contents, however it will not be removed and the named database metadata will remain.

### sync¶

Sync the database environment. Useful if mapAsync or noSync is set in order to manually sync data to the disk.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

lmdb.sync();

Return Value:

undefined.

### getCount¶

Count the number of items in a database.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var count = lmdb.getCount(dbase);


Where:

dbase is dbi object returned from openDb or a String, the name of the database to be accessed. If the database does not exist, an error will be thrown.

Return Value:

A Number, the number of items in the database.

### listDbs¶

List the named databases in a database environment.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var list = lmdb.listDbs(dbase);

Return Value:

An Array of Strings, the names of all named databases.

Note:

The names of named databases are stored in the default database. To retrieve the names, every item in the default database must be scanned. When using named databases, the best practice is to not store data in the default database.

### close¶

Close the database envirnoment. After closing, all transaction handles, database handles and all functions using the previously opened environment will throw errors if used again.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* do stuff */

lmdb.close();

Return Value:

undefined.

### Easy Functions Full Example¶

The following creates random entries of names and addresses. After the database is populated with the sample data, a selection that meet specific criteria is printed.

/* make printf and sprintf easier to use */
rampart.globalize(rampart.utils, ["printf","sprintf"]);

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(
"./lmdb-test",
true, /* create if does not exist */
{
mapSize: 1024, //one gigabyte
conversion: "CBOR",
noMetaSync:true,
noSync: true,
}
);

var dbi = lmdb.openDb("testdata", true);

/* create test data */

var fnames = [ "Mohamed", "Imene", "Santiago", "Sofía", "Wei", "Jing",
"Noel", "Amelia", "Oliver", "Olivia" ];

var lnames = [ "Beridze", "Cohen", "Kovačević", "Nielsen", "Tremblay",
"Hernández", "Smith", "Kumar", "Mabiala", "Kimetto"];

var initials = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";

var streets = ["Main", "Broadway", "First", "Second", "Grove", "College",
"University", "Park", "Oak", "Pine"];

var stsuff  = ["Street", "Drive", "Avenue", "Blvd", "Court", "Circle.",
"Road", "Lane", "Way", "Highway"];

function makeName(){
var ret = {
first: fnames[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)],
mi:    initials.charAt(Math.floor(Math.random()*26)),
last:  lnames[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)]
}
ret.full = sprintf ("%s %s. %s", ret.first, ret.mi, ret.last);
return ret;
}

obj.streetno = Math.floor(Math.random()*10000);
obj.street = sprintf("%s %s",
streets[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)],
stsuff[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)]
);
obj.zip = 10000 + Math.floor(Math.random()*90000);
return obj;
}

/* insert entries */
for (var i=0; i<5000; i++) {
var entry = makeName();
var key = entry.full + " from " + entry.zip;
lmdb.put(dbi, key, entry);
}

// sync now, or sync will happen upon script exit.
//lmdb.sync();

/* get all the Sofías in the database */
var entries = lmdb.get(dbi, "Sofía", "*");
var keys = Object.keys(entries);
var total = lmdb.getCount(dbi);

printf("There are %d Sofías out of %d entries in the database.\n", keys.length, total);

for (i=0;i<keys.length;i++) {
var key = keys[i];
var entry = entries[key];
// find the Sofías living on Main Street
if(entry.street == "Main Street")
printf("%s lives at %d %s\n", key, entry.streetno, entry.street);
}

/* possible output:
There are 471 Sofías out of 5000 entries in the database.
Sofía D. Cohen from 85916 lives at 2320 Main Street
Sofía H. Hernández from 17267 lives at 518 Main Street
Sofía J. Tremblay from 69088 lives at 4701 Main Street
Sofía T. Kimetto from 73446 lives at 441 Main Street
Sofía U. Mabiala from 94846 lives at 1608 Main Street
Sofía Z. Hernández from 57045 lives at 905 Main Street
*/

lmdb.drop("testdata");


Note that the above is a naive way of inserting data into a database since it opens and closes a transaction for every record inserted.

Though more memory intensive, it is far more efficient to use the following code in order to insert all of the records in a single transaction:

/* create entries in an object*/
var insertobj = {}
for (var i=0; i<5000; i++) {
var entry = makeName();
var key = entry.full + " from " + entry.zip;
insertobj[key]=entry;
}
/* insert all at once */
lmdb.put(dbi, insertobj);


In order to conserver memory and to insert in a single transaction, see the Transaction Functions Full Example below.

## LMDB Transaction Functions¶

Transactions provide lower level access to lmdb function. In the above functions, transactions are automatically opened and closed without explicitly having to do so. In order to have more flexibility and possibly see a performance gain, the transaction model outlined below provides the relevant functions.

### lmdb.transaction¶

The lmdb.transaction function opens a new transaction and returns functions which may perform tasks within the open transaction.

Note that the LMDB Easy Functions above that open an internal transaction for writing will throw an error if they are called while any write transaction below is open.

These include put, del, drop and openDb (only when a database is being created).

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] open_rw [, commit_by_default] );

/* return value:
{
get:         {_func: true},
put:         {_func: true},
del:         {_func: true},
cursorGet:   {_func: true},
cursorPut:   {_func: true},
cursorDel:   {_func: true},
cursorNext:  {_func: true},
cursorPrev:  {_func: true},
commit:      {_func: true},
abort:       {_func: true},
lmdb:        {} //the above lmdb object
}
*/

/* use connection, then commit or abort */
tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb or a String, the name of the database to be accessed. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the lmdb default database for the current database environment will be use. This database will be the default for all operations below. However, more than one database may be used per transaction.

• open_rw is an Boolean, if true, open the transaction for read/write. This is needed if any data will be added or deleted from a database. If false (the default), the transaction will be read only.

• commit_by_default is an Boolean. When a transaction is opened, it must be eventually closed using either txn.commit or txn.abort. If the script exits or var txn goes out of scope (e.g. the function in which var txn was declared returns) without closing, it will be automatically closed. If commit_by_default is true, txn.commit will be called. Otherwise if false (the default) or not set, txn.abort will be called. This is only relevant when open_rw is true and the database is being altered.

Note:

Only one read/write transaction per database environment may be open at any time. Attempting to open one while another is open will throw an error. However, along with one read/write transaction, several read only transactions may be concurrently open in a single database environment.

Note also that opening a new transaction with a String dbase parameter, and where dbase does not exist is a read/write open even if open_rw is false. As such, if another read/write transaction is open, an error will be thrown. In such a case, the database should be opened using openDb to create it before any read/write transactions are opened.

Note also that the one open read/write transaction restriction is per-thread, so no special care is needed when using LMDB from The rampart-server HTTP module. However, when using LMDB from the server, a mutex lock is used to ensure that only one read/write transaction is open at any given time. Therefore read/write transactions should be closed as soon as all writes are finished.

Return Value:

An Object of functions.

### txn.get¶

Get a single value from a database.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

var res = txn.get([dbase ,] key [, return_string]);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• key is a String or Buffer, the key of the item to be retrieved.

• return_string is a Boolean. If true the return value will be a String. If false or not set, the return value will be a Buffer.

Return Value:

A Buffer or, if return_string is true, a String.

### txn.getRef¶

Get a single value from a database in a mmaped backed buffer.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

var res = txn.getRef([dbase ,] key);

/* use res here */

tnx.commit();

/* res data is invalid and buffer is reset to zero length */


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• key is a String or Buffer, the key of the item to be retrieved.

Return Value:

A Buffer. The buffer is backed by the mmaped data on disk and is only valid until txn.commit or txn.abort is called, or until the txn variable is no longer in scope.

Note:

This can be used to have The rampart-server HTTP module serve content directly from the disk with no copies. In order to do so, the txn variable must stay in scope until the content is served.

In the following example, setTimeout is used to keep the txn object in scope until after the http transaction is complete. Otherwise the transaction would be automatically closed upon the return of the function and the contents of the buffer would be invalid and reset to zero length.

/* callback function for the rampart-server module */
function cb (req)
{
var txn = new lmdb.transaction(false);
/* get a mmap backed reference to our data */
var refbuf = txn.getRef("myjpg");

/* close transaction after http request is served. *
* The setTimeout function is inserted into the    *
* event loop and will be run after the http reply *
* is sent to the client.                          */
setTimeout(
function() {
txn.commit();
},
0
);
/* serve data directly from disk */
return({"jpg":refbuf});
}


### txn.put¶

Put (store) values in a given Object into a given database, indexed by the Object’s keys.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read write */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] true);

txn.put([dbase, ] kvpairs);

/* or */

txn.put([dbase, ] key, value);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• kvpairs is an Object with each Object key corresponding to a database key to be used and each Object value corresponding to the database value to be stored.

• key is a String or Buffer, the key of a single key:value pair.

• value is a String, Buffer or Object. The value of a single key:value pair. If value is an Object, it will be automatically converted to a Buffer using CBOR.encode(). Note, when retrieved using txn.get or txn.cursorGet, a CBOR encoded value will not be automatically decoded.

Return Value:

undefined.

### txn.del¶

Delete an the item with the given key.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read write */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] true);

txn.del([dbase, ] key);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• key is the key of the item to be deleted.

Return Value:

A Boolean: true if the item was deleted. false if there was no item with the given key found.

### Using Cursors¶

When any of the below Cursor Functions is used, a cursor is automatically created for the database being accessed. The cursor keeps track of the position of the last operation and may be used for subsequent operations.

Each database specified in the below functions has its own associated cursor. Each cursor is automatically destroyed when the transaction is committed or aborted.

### txn.cursorGet¶

Position the cursor using one of several possible “operation modes” and return the key and value of the item at the cursor’s new position.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

var res = txn.cursorGet([dbase ,] op [, key] [, key_is_string [, val_is_string] ]);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• op is a flag, which specifies the operation mode and is one of the following:

• lmdb.op_set - Position the cursor at the item with the key key.

• lmdb.op_setRange - Position the cursor at the first item with a key greater than or equal to key.

• lmdb.op_first - Position the cursor at the first item in the given database.

• lmdb.op_last - Position the cursor at the last item in the given database.

• lmdb.op_next - Position the cursor one after its current position. If the cursor has not been set, position at the first item in the database.

• lmdb.op_prev - Position the cursor one before its current position. If the cursor has not been set, position at the last item in the database.

• lmdb.op_current - Cursor stays at its current position.

• key is the key of the item to be retrieved. Used for op_set and op_setRange.

• key_is_string is a Boolean. If true, the return key will be converted to a String. If false, (the default) the return key will be a Buffer.

• val_is_string is a Boolean. If true, the return value will be converted to a String. If false, (the default) the return value will be a Buffer.

Return Value:

An Object with the properties key and value set to the key and value of the retrieved item (e.g. {"key": "database_key", "value": "database_value"}).

### txn.cursorPut¶

Put (store) value in a given into a database, indexed by the the given key. Move cursor to the items location.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read write */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] true);

txn.cursorPut([dbase, ] key, value);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• key is a String or Buffer, the key of a single key:value pair.

• value is a String Buffer, or Object. The value of a single key:value pair. If value is an Object, it will be automatically converted to a Buffer using CBOR.encode(). Note, when retrieved using txn.get or txn.cursorGet, a CBOR encoded value will not be automatically decoded.

Return Value:

undefined.

### txn.cursorDel¶

Delete the item at the cursor’s position.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read write */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] true);

/* e.g. to position the cursor */
txn.cursorGet([dbase, ] lmdb.op_set, key);

/* delete item at cursor position */
txn.cursorDel([dbase, ]);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

Return Value:

undefined.

### txn.cursorNext¶

Move cursor position to the next item and return the key:value pair.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

/* position the cursor at next item*/
var res = txn.cursorNext([dbase, ] [key_is_string [, val_is_string] ]);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• key_is_string is a Boolean. If true the return key will be converted to a String. If false (the default) the return key will be a Buffer.

• val_is_string is a Boolean. If true the returned value will be converted to a String. If false (the default) value will be a Buffer.

This operates identical to:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

/* position the cursor at next item*/
var res = txn.cursorGet([dbase, ] lmdb.op_next);

tnx.commit();


The exception is that if the cursor is already at the last item, undefined is returned instead of an empty object.

It allows the following:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

var res;

/*
Get every item in the database.
If cursor has not been previously set cursorNext()
starts at the first item.
*/
while( (res = txn.cursorNext()) )
{
/* do something with res */
}

tnx.commit();

Return Value:

Same as txn.cursorGet (an Object) unless the cursor is at the last item (in which case undefined is returned).

### txn.cursorPrev¶

Move cursor position to the previous item and return the key:value pair.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

/* position the cursor at previous item*/
var res = txn.cursorPrev([dbase, ] [key_is_string [, val_is_string] ]);

tnx.commit();


Where:

• dbase is a dbi object returned from openDb. If the database does not exist, it will be created. If omitted, the database specified in new lmdb.transaction will be used.

• key_is_string is a Boolean. If true the return key will be converted to a String. If false (the default) the return key will be a Buffer.

• val_is_string is a Boolean. If true the returned value will be converted to a String. If false (the default) value will be a Buffer.

This operates identical to:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase, ] false);

/* position the cursor at previous item*/
var res = txn.cursorGet([dbase, ] lmdb.op_prev);

tnx.commit();


The exception is that if the cursor is already at the first item, undefined is returned instead of an empty object.

It allows the following:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

/* open read only if only reading in this transaction */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase], false);

var res;

/*
Get every item in the database in reverse order.
If cursor has not been previously set cursorPrev()
it starts at the last item.
*/
while( (res = txn.cursorPrev()) )
{
/* do something with res */
}

tnx.commit();

Return Value:

Same as txn.cursorGet (an Object) unless the cursor is at the first item (in which case undefined is returned).

### txn.commit¶

Commit the current transaction. If it is a read/write transactions, the associated mutex lock is released.

Usage:

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase], open_rw);

/* use tnx here */

tnx.commit();

Return Value:

undefined

### txn.abort¶

Abort the current transaction. All data written since starting the transaction will be discarded. If it is a read/write transactions, the associated mutex lock is released.

Usage:

 var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");

var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(path,create,options);

var txn = new lmdb.transaction([dbase], open_rw);

/* use tnx here */

/* discard any/all changes */
tnx.abort();

Return Value:

undefined

### Transaction Functions Full Example¶

This example performs the same tasks as the Easy Functions Full Example except that it uses transactions. As a result, execution speed is significantly improved.

/* make printf and sprintf easier to use */
rampart.globalize(rampart.utils, ["printf","sprintf"]);

var Lmdb = require("rampart-lmdb");
var lmdb = new Lmdb.init(
"./lmdb-test",
true,  /* create if does not exist */
{
mapSize: 1024, /* one gigabyte */
conversion: "CBOR",
noMetaSync:true,
noSync: true,
}
);

var dbi = lmdb.openDb("testdata", true);

/* create test data */

var fnames = [ "Mohamed", "Imene", "Santiago", "Sofía", "Wei", "Jing",
"Noel", "Amelia", "Oliver", "Olivia" ];

var lnames = [ "Beridze", "Cohen", "Kovačević", "Nielsen", "Tremblay",
"Hernández", "Smith", "Kumar", "Mabiala", "Kimetto"];

var initials = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";

var streets = ["Main", "Broadway", "First", "Second", "Grove", "College",
"University", "Park", "Oak", "Pine"];

var stsuff  = ["Street", "Drive", "Avenue", "Blvd", "Court", "Circle.",
"Road", "Lane", "Way", "Highway"];

function makeName(){
var ret = {
first: fnames[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)],
mi:    initials.charAt(Math.floor(Math.random()*26)),
last:  lnames[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)]
}
ret.full = sprintf ("%s %s. %s", ret.first, ret.mi, ret.last);
return ret;
}

obj.streetno = Math.floor(Math.random()*10000);
obj.street = sprintf("%s %s",
streets[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)],
stsuff[Math.floor(Math.random()*10)]
);
obj.zip = 10000 + Math.floor(Math.random()*90000);
return obj;
}

/* Open a new transaction and insert entries */
var txn = new lmdb.transaction(dbi,true); //read/write
for (var i=0; i<5000; i++) {
var entry = makeName();
var key = entry.full + " from " + entry.zip;
/* since entry is an object, it will be converted to CBOR */
txn.put(dbi, key, entry);
}
txn.commit();

// sync now, or sync will happen upon script exit.
//lmdb.sync();

/* this must be done while outside a transaction */
var total = lmdb.getCount(dbi);

/* get all the Sofías in the database */
txn = new lmdb.transaction(dbi,false); //read only

/* get first entry, make the key a string, leave value as a buffer */
var entry = txn.cursorGet(dbi, lmdb.op_setRange, "Sofía", true);
i=0;

/* process first entry and loop to get entries after */
do {
/* if there were no Sofías from the above cursorGet or if
the current cursorNext is not a Sofía, we are done      */
if( ! entry.key || ! /^Sofía./.test(entry.key) )
break;
i++;
/* in transactions, CBOR is not automatically decoded */
entry.value = CBOR.decode(entry.value);
if(entry.value.street == "Main Street")
printf("%s lives at %d %s\n",
entry.key,
entry.value.streetno,
entry.value.street
);
} while(entry = txn.cursorNext(dbi, true));

printf("There are %d Sofías out of %d entries in the database.\n", i, total);

txn.commit();

lmdb.drop(dbi);

/* possible output:
Sofía A. Cohen from 25350 lives at 4458 Main Street
Sofía I. Beridze from 11345 lives at 8483 Main Street
Sofía P. Cohen from 48234 lives at 9441 Main Street
Sofía S. Kimetto from 38632 lives at 5244 Main Street
Sofía X. Smith from 19604 lives at 21 Main Street
There are 501 Sofías out of 5000 entries in the database.
*/